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Katerina Koutsovoulou

Alyssum fragillimum (Bald.) Rech. f.

Alyssum fragillimum is a dwarf perennial herbaceous species. Stems are thin, placed at the ground with a length of 5 cm, branched, that form roots. The species is a local Greek endemic in Crete and more specifically in the Lefka Ori massif at altitudes above 1500 m. Despite being a local endemic, it has very broad distribution within this zone and at least 15 localities are known to occur. It is very common locally - actually in many cases there are no distinct subpopulations but there is a continuous distribution.

Campanula merxmuelleri Phitos

Campanula merxmuelleri is a biennial or perennial (monocarpic) species with numerous simple stems having flowers and leaves. The species is a local Greek endemic that occurs in Skyros and Psara, in limestone rock crevices and old walls (e.g. castles, churches) at an altitude from 30 to 450 m. The largest subpopulation of the species is distributed at the Mountain Kochylas, Skyros. The main pressures for the species are intense grazing and overcollection. Flowering takes place from April to May.

Campanula cymbalaria Sm.

Perennial herbaceous plant with a branched caudex and height 10-60 cm. Flowers purple, inflorescence occupying most of the length of the stem. The species occurs in shaded areas, in rocky habitats, only in areas protected by grazing. The distribution of the species includes Greece, Turkey and Libya. In Greece, it occurs only in the island of Chios, in Mt Pelinnaio.

Alnus glutinosa (L.) Gaertn. subsp. glutinosa

Deciduous tree commonly named alder that thrives in moist soils, reaching to a height of 20-30 m. Anthesis occurs from February to March and seed maturation on October. It grows in deep and moist, clay-sandy soils, often almost in the water, in streams or rivers, usually, at altitudes of 0-1500 m. It needs plenty of light, grows quickly at an early age, stabilizes the river banks very effectively and is very resistant to pruning and flooding. It mainly occurs in North and Central Greece but extends to the Northwest Peloponnese, and to some of the larger islands.

Helichrysum heldreichii Boiss.

Helichrysum heldreichii is a local endemic species of Crete and occurs only on vertical limestone rocks in two gorges of Chania Perfecture, the Samaria Gorge and the Aradena Gorge. The population of the species has a total of less than 2,000 individuals. It flowers from May to June.

Campanula asperuloides (Boiss. & Heldr.) Engl.

Campanula asperuloides is a perennial species, forming dense, cushion-shaped clusters. The species is local endemic to the Peloponnese, where it occurs in five mountains (Chelmos, Taygetos, Parnon, Koulochera, Kyllini) and Evrostini area. It grows on limestone rocks and crevices, at altitudes 400-1700 m. Flowering takes place from June to August.

Taxus baccata L.

Evergreen tree or shrub with a height up to 20 m. Flowering takes place in March-April and seed ripening in September-November. It occurs at deciduous forests, on limestone, at altitudes from 600 to 1800 m, in small groups or individuals. It is found sporadically in the mainland, Evia and Thasos. The species is distributed in W. and C. Europe, the Caucasus and Iran. All pats of the plant, except for the fleshy fruit coat are poisonous for animals, particularly seeds.

Campanula oreadum Boiss. & Heldr.

Campanula oreadum is a perennial chasmophytic species. The species is local endemic to Olympus mountain, where it occurs in rock crevices, at altitudes 1800-2900 m, occasionally at lower altitudes, c. 1200 m, in ravines, on limestone. Flowering takes place from end of June to mid-September. Campanula oreadum is one of the 50 greek endemic species of the Campanulaceae family, which comprises 98 species in total in Greece.